若名詞/代詞與非謂語構成主動關系，用doing或having done;若名詞/代詞與非謂語構成被動關系，用done或having been done。having done與having been done 強調非謂語發生在主句謂語之前。
The boy ran quickly, his father following. (表示伴隨情況)
He lay on his back, his hands crossed under his head. (表示伴隨情況)
They started home, their minds full of plans for increasing production. (表示伴隨情況)
He was silent for a moment, his lips tight. (表示伴隨情況)
He put on his socks, wrong side out. (表示補充說明)
The war over, all the Chinese people’s volunteers came back to China. (表示補充說明)
She came in, a baby in her arms. (表示伴隨情況)
He went off, gun in hand. (表示伴隨情況)
His homework done, Jim decided to go and see the play.
=After his homework was done, he decided to go and see the play.
The last bus having gone, we had to walk home.
=Because the last bus having gone, we had to walk home.
Weather permitting, we’ll go for an outing tomorrow.
=If weather permitting, we’ll go for an outing tomorrow.
They walked through the forest, an old hunter leading the way.
He lived in a wooden house with two rooms, one being a bedroom and the other being an office.
=He lived in a wooden house with two rooms, one was a bedroom, the other was an office.